The Art Institute of Chicago is probably best known for its collection of Impressionist paintings; in fact, the museum is on the short list of finest Impressionist collections in the world. Here's a peek at the most famous section of the museum (which also includes post-Impressionist paintings, for you purists out there).
"The Place du Havre, Paris" (1893) by Camille Pissarro
"Why Are You Angry? (No te aha oe riri)" (1896) by Paul Gauguin
"In the Sea" (1883) by Arnold Bocklin (who, unfortunately, is best known as Hitler's favorite painter, though the Swiss died when Adolf was 12)
"Stacks of Wheat (Sunset, Snow Effect)" (1890/91) by Claude Monet
"Water Lily Pond" (1900) by Claude Monet (who painted this at his residence in Giverny)
A detail of Monet's brushstrokes from "Water Lily Pond" (1917-22)
"Seated Female Clown (Mademoiselle Cha-U-Kao)" (1896) by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
"The Drinkers" (1890) by Vincent Van Gogh
"The Bedroom" (1889) by Vincent Van Gogh
Van Gogh's "Self Portrait" (1887)
Probably the most famous painting in the section = Georges Seurat's "A Sunday on La Grande Jette - 1884" (1884-86). Aside from its stunning composition, it's the foremost example of pointillism (using dots of colors to form an image rather than brushstrokes, similarly to Van Gogh's above self portrait).
If you don't get the reference, seek help immediately.
"The Beach at Sainte-Adresse" (1867) by a very young Claude Monet
The other large titan of the section (and one of my top 5 favorite paintings of all time, regardless of how popular it is) = "Paris Street; Rainy Day" (1877) by Gustave Caillebotte. The detail is all the more clear in person, given that it's a massive painting that is given its own wall in the gallery.
Coming up next = the rest of the European art section. Stay tuned.